|Section of Paleontology||Section of Volcanology|
|Section of Mineralogy||Section of Ore Deposits|
|Section of Petrography||Section of Mineral Waters|
More than 700 springs and boreholes of mineral waters are known in the territory of the Republic of Armenia, the total debit of which is approximately 140 m3/day (60 mln. liters/day). Of these, the mineral springs of Jermuk, Dilijan, Arzni, Bjni, Lichq, Hankavan, and Vanadzor are particularly noteworthy. Health resorts were established at many of these springs, and some are still operating today. The waters of Armenia vary greatly from each other in their chemical content, and the gas composition is carbon dioxide, relatively little content of nitrogen-carbohydrate and sulfuric acid. The temperature ranges from 400С in Gridzor to 640С in Jermuk and even up to 830С in Sevaberd springs.
The Jermuk springs are located in the Arpa River Gorge, on the Jermuk Plateau. They have 1500 l3 per day of effluent. The waters contain bicarbonate-sulphate, sodium-calcium-magnesium composition. They contain 4-5 grams per liter mineralisation on average. The temperatures vary from 400С to 580С. Overall one could say the waters are similar to those of the famous Karlovy Vary springs in the Czech Republic in their therapeutic qualities.
The Hankavan mineral springs were discovered in Hankavan village territory. They have 4000 liters per day of effluent. These waters contain primarily chloride and bicarbonate sodium composition, with 8-9 grams per liter of mineralisation on average. The temperatures of the water vary from 120С to 140С- 320С. These springs are analogous the famous Yessentuki springs 4 and 17 located in Russia, Soyma in the Carpathian regions of Ukraine, and springs in Kamchatka, also in Russia.
The Arzni springs are in Hrazdan River Gorge, in the smaller tributaries of Dalar stream, in the village of Arzakan. The first mineral the Arzni Sanatorium (1925) in Armenia is located here, and is still in operation today. Arzni waters have 1600 liters per day of effluent, are rich in chloride and bicarbonate, and sodium. The water has 6-14 grams per liter mineralisation and about 200С in temperature. In their therapeutic qualities, Arzni springs are analogous to the waters in the town of Wiesbaden, Germany.
Bjni-Arzakan mineral waters are quite well-known as well. These springs are spread out over the two banks of the Hrazdan River. They have 1600 l3/day of effluent, are rich in chloride bicarbonate, and sodium-calcium composition. They contain 4-6 grams per liter mineralisation, and 140С-150С temperature; which makes them analogous to the waters in Vichy (France), Kynica in Poland, Bilina in the Czech Republic, and Borjomi in Georgia in their therapeutic qualities.
The mineral waters of the Ararat Valley, with their gas composition are quite unique. They have an effluent of 750 l3/day and are rich with bicarbonate, calcium and magnesium composition. The gases dissolved in these waters are a blend of nitrogen- carbon dioxide with up to 4 grams per liter of mineralisation, at about 200С. These characteristics make these waters analogous to the Tsqaltubo waters of Georgia.
Azatavan, Hankavan, Eghegis and other bore-bearing, rare basic metal containing waters are few in Armenia. On the one hand, they can be used for therapeutic purposes, on the other hand – for the extraction of various precious and rare elements and compounds. The elaboration and application of such technologies will be inevitable and of utmost priority in the near future.